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Fail2ban scans log files (e.g. /var/log/apache/error_log) and bans IPs that show the malicious signs -- too many password failures, seeking for exploits, etc. Generally Fail2Ban is then used to update firewall rules to reject the IP addresses for a specified amount of time, although any arbitrary other action (e.g. sending an email) could also be configured. Out of the box Fail2Ban comes with filters for various services (apache, courier, ssh, etc).
Fail2Ban is able to reduce the rate of incorrect authentications attempts however it cannot eliminate the risk that weak authentication presents. Configure services to use only two factor or public/private authentication mechanisms if you really want to protect services.
More about Fail2ban
ChangeLog (List of changes)
README (Official README file)
Contributors (persons who contributed to the project)
See GitHub Releases for most up-to-date list. Entries below might be outdated
2015/08/01 0.9.3 is a big bugfix and new functionality release. Release Notes for 0.9.3.
2015/04/29 0.9.2 is a big bugfix and new functionality release. Release Notes for 0.9.2.
2014/10/28 0.9.1 is a big bugfix and new functionality release. Release Notes for 0.9.1.
2014/08/19 0.8.14 is a minor bugfix release primarily to fix Python 2.4 compatibility. Release Notes for 0.8.14.
To experiment with this wiki try Sandbox. See the User's Guide for usage and configuration help.